Calendario Romano 2023
The most typical souvenir from Rome
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The CALENDARIO ROMANO 2021 joint to pictures it also contains generical informations about of the Vaticano State
Often tourists, mainly foreigners, don’t have a complete knowledge of the things they see while in Rome, especially concerning the rather confusing Vatican grounds.
This calendar intends to give basic information and some notes on the general characteristics of the Vatican with the hope of sating the thirst for knowledge continually demonstrated by the Eternal City’s visitors.
The Vatican is a true and proper sovereign state, heir of the ancient Pontiff State born following the Treaty of Laterano the agreed upon protocol signed between the Holy Sede and the Italian State on February 11, 1929.
The Vatican is the smallest State in the world, its surface is a little smaller than half a kilometer squared, and is a theocratic monarchy. Like every state, the Vatican has its own passports, provides for the use of a flag and anthem, and even possesses a
train for the transport of goods. It has diplomatic representatives in almost all of the countries in the world and, because of the presence of the Vatican, Rome can be considered the only city in the world to have a double diplomatic body: one representing
the Republic of Italy and the other the Holy Sede
The Stateís leader is the Pope, elected by the Holy College of Cardinals, and chosen from the around 150 Cardinals whom are under 80 years old. As a result of this, the Pope can come from anywhere in the world.
No one may ever be above the Pontiff, who, in fact, can establish any law without any authority able to check his actions.
In practice, however, the Pope is surrounded by advisors, from whom the Cardinals of the curia, whom assist him with his work, stand out. Above them all is his right hand man, the hand picked Secretary of State.
In effect, the Pope delegates a special commission of cardinals that exercise their power over the State. However, in any moment he can take this power back, and can also naturally block the Commissionís decisions. The Pontiff can be considered “legibus solutus”, which, while not above the law, is in so much absolute sovereign.
Other than the territory proper of the State, the jurisdiction of the Vatican is made up of other buildings in and out of Rome that benefit from the privileges of extraterritoriality and are exempt from expropriation and tributes.
The extraterritorialities of the Holy Sede in Rome, including the various agreementsunderwritten in subsequent regards between the Holy Sede and Italy, are:
1. The complex of St. John in Laterano (Basilica, Palazzo Apostolico Lateranense with the connected buildings and the Holy Steps);
2. St. Mary Maggiore’s Basilica with the connected buildings;
3. St. Paulís Basilica outside the Wall along with the connected buildings;
4. The Chancellor’s Palazzo;
5. The Palazzo of Propaganda Fide, seat of the Congregation for the Evangelizing of the People;
6. St. Callisto’s Palazzo in Trastevere;
7. The Palazzo of the Holy Offices and adjacent seat of the Congregation of the Doctrine of Faith (ex Holy Offices);
8. The Palazzo of the Convertendi, seat of the Oriental Churches Congregation;
9. The Palazzo Maffei or of the Vicariato (already seat of the Curia Diocese of Rome, whom act as guards to some officials);
10. The Palazzo of the Congregation of the Propilei;
11. The Palazzo Pious, declared extraterritorial in 1979 (with the complete exclusion of the locals who actually accommodate the Auditorium) in substitution of the Palazzo of the Dataria, no longer property of the Holy Sede;
12. The Minor Roman Papal Seminary;
13. The property on Gianicolo (Pio Romeno Papal College, Ukraine Papal College of St. Jehoshaphat, North American Papal College, Hospital of Baby Jesus, Church and Convent of St. Onofrio, Papal Urban University, Area of Technical Services of the Holy Sede, St. Monicaís International College, Curia Generalizia of the Companions of Jesus, Institute of Baby Mary, Church of Saints Michael and Magno, Building of the Calasanzian Sisters, House of the Sisters of Our Lady of Sorrows, Property on Borgo Santo Spirito adjacent to the Curia of the Jesuits).
In virtue of the agreement of the Holy Sede (1982) at the Convention of November 16, 1972 on the protection of the worldís cultural and natural heritage, all of Vatican City, as well as the Holy Sedeís exterior territories in Rome, were written in the world heritage list. They were added equally, both for their individual worth and because they make up part of the historical city center.
Property with extraterritoriality privilege outside of Rome include the Palazzo Pontificio, the Villa Cybo and the Villa Barberini at Castelgandolfo, and the Supreme Pontiffís summer residence which covered a global area of 400 thousand meters
squared and which came to join the new Broadcasting Center of Santa Maria di Galeria, which arose near Cesano18 km from Rome, following the agreement between the Holy Sede and Italy on October 8, 1951.
The words of the Pope, when not on a world pilgrimage or in his summer seat of Castel Gandolfo (from mid-July to the end of September) can be heard in Saint Peter’s Square every Sunday at the 12:00am Angelus.
The Pope appears from his private studioís window and blesses the faithful. The special benediction Urbi et Orbi is bestowed at Easter and Christmas.
Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the State for the tourist is the fact that the Vatican is a brimfull treasure chest of universally important works of art. These collections can be viewed for free every last Sunday of the month.
The principle collections are: the Egyptian Gregorian Museum, the Etruscan Gregorian Museum, the Chiaramonti Museum, the Pious-Clementine Museum, the Belvedere, the Animal Room, the Statue Gallery, the Bust Gallery, the Mask Room, the Room of the Muses, the Round Room, the Greek Cross Room, the Candelabra Gallery, the Tapestry Gallery, the Map Room, the Gallery of Saint Pious V, Saint Pious, V’s Room, the Sobieski Room, the Immaculate Conception Room, the Chiaroscuro Room, Pope Nicholas Vís Chapel, the Rafael Room, and the celebrated Sistine
Chapel. A visit to the Museum of the History of the Vatican situated near the Palazzo Lateranense and Saint Peterís Treasury is also recommended.
Skilled in the age-old tradition of minting their own coin, the Vatican also actually benefits from it. The money is only minted by the Instituto Poligrafico e Zecca of the State of Rome and has the same characteristics composition and nominal value as the corresponding money of the European Union.
The stamps, generally dedicated to art, culture and world issues, are renowned and researched by stamp collectors worldwide.
Telephone cards, of which the first run began in 1992, are also collector’s items.
Vatican City has two surveillance groups. The more noted Swiss Guard, founded in 1506 and composed of around one hundred men, their colorful uniforms are said to have been designed by Michelangelo. Consisting of a miniarmy at the service of the
Pope, their duties consist of defending his person, not to mention the State grounds and the entrance of the Apostolic Palace.
The second body is the much less well known Vatican Guard, their members wear a dark blue uniform.
Vatican City has had its own license plates since 1930. They are normally black on a white field, with the letters SCV and a number. Special red on white license plates are used for the Pope and for the Cardinals. Vatican plates go from SCV 1 until about
Vatican citizenship is not obtained by birth, but is given from time to time by the appropriate office.
No one can own private property within the Vatican. All of the territory and property is considered ìstato patrimonialeî of the Holy Sede.
There are numerous Papal diplomats scattered worldwide which are Vatican citizens, but not residents. Those that regularly reside in the Papal city amount to about 300 people!
(tel. +39.06.69885361 – +39.06.69883422)
This is perhaps the most complete pharmacy that exists in Rome. Here, in fact, you can find a great assortment of mostly foreign medicines not marketed in Italy.
Entrance is given to anyone with a medical prescription.
I hope that these brief notes could be of help. For additional information, check the official Vatican internet site or other sites easily found on the net.